Ratu Boko palace located in Boko hill, 19 km to the east side from city of Jogja and 2 km to the south side from Prambanan temple.
Since the palace located in a plateau, this complex has its own uniqueness. Such as a beautiful landscape, tourist could see Prambanan and Kalasan temple on the north side with Mount Merapi and rice field as the background from afar. And on the north side, south sea looks hazily.
Establishment history of this place could be told from the finding of the ancient inscription. Based on Walaing inscription in 792 AD told about Abhayagiriwihara development by RakaiPanangkaran. Based on the building structure and ancient inscription, this complex was a monastery for a priest named Abhayagiri. Then in 856 AD, the complex was used as a palace by Rakai Walaing Pu Khumbayoni who is a Hindu. So, it is not strange to see mix decoration between Hindu and Buddha here.
Hindu characteristic could be seen from yoni, three miniature temples, Ganeshaand Durga statue, also gold and silver plate written Hindu spell. While Buddha characteristic could be seen from Buddha statue, ruins of stupa, and stupika.
Complex of Ratu Boko called as palace because according to the inscription the building is similar with palace. In Bharatayudah, Kresnayana, Gatotkacasraya, and Bhomakawya holy books, had been written that palace is a building that surrounds by gate. There are pools and some buildings such as worship building.
Based on location, Ratu Boko palace divided into three level, west, southeast, and east. The building located on terraces up the hill, with the front yard located on the west side, there are three terraces. Each terrace divided by andesite stone fence sized 3,50 meters. Border of south side fence also made from andesite stone, but north side border is a hill wall with direct sculpture.
Southeast side contains floor structure, gate, batur pendopo, batur pringgitan, miniature of temple, two complex of pool, and ruins of stupa. Pool complex is bordered by fence and a gate as the entrance. On the bottom of the pool was sculpted lingga yoni, directly on bedrock. East side contains a pool and two caves named Gua Lanang and Gua Wadon.
From the location (high land), Ratu Boko has its own uniqueness and attraction. It has nice views on the north side, such as Prambanan and Kalasan Temple with Mount Merapi as the background with rural nuance and green rice fields surrounding. Besides, on the south side, you can see from far away the legendary South Sea.
History of the establishment and the use of Ratu Boko is known from epigraph or inscription found in the Ratu Boko area, that is the Walaing epigraph 792 M, containing of celebration of establishment of Abhayagiriwihara by Rakai Panangkaran. Ratu Boko was a vihara for a monk of Buddha, named Abhayagiri. On 856 M, the area was functioned as a palace by Rakai Walaing Pu Khumbayoni who was a Hindu. Therefore it makes sense if Hindu and Buddha elements are in the ruins of Ratu Boko.
Elements of Hindu can be seen through yoni, three miniaturs of the temple, arca of Ganesha and Durga, also gold and silver plate, written about mantra of Hindu. Besides elements of Buddha can be recognized from arca of Buddha, some ruins of stupa, and stupica.
The ruins of Ratu Boko is known as a palace since it is mentioned in the epigraph and it looks like the description of a palace. In the literature of Bharatayudha, Kresnayana, Gatotkacasraya, and Bhomakawya, it is mentioned that the palace was an area of buildings sorrounding by gates, with pool and some other buildings inside such as a worship building and outside the palace, there is a town square. The umpak and batur from andesit indicates that the building was made of wood.
Based on the location, buildings in the ruins of Ratu Boko can be categorized into three, such as west group, south-east, and east. The building is located on the terraces of the hill, with the front yard on the westward, consists of three terraces. Each terrace is separated by andesit gate 3,50 meter height, and the escarpment is also made of andesit. The border of the southward yard is made of andesit, but the the north border is directly carved from hill.
The southeast part consists of floor structure, gate, batur pendopo, batur pringgitan, miniature of the temple, sorrounding walls, two complex of pool, and ruins of stupa. The two pools are bordered with a wall with an entrace. On the base of the pool, there is lingga yoni, directly to the bedrock. The east group consists of a pool and two caves called Goa Lanang and Goa Wadon.